Yule and the Solstice – Welcoming the Return of the Light

My daughter lays with Yule lights, 2007

Our ancestors lived in a world where the sun and moon phases were their clocks, their rhythms, and their guides to the seasons.  In the spring, they planted.  During the summer and fall, they harvested.  As the days became darker and the last bits of harvest was collected, our ancestors gathered wood and hunted, made candles to move through the dark of winter.  They hoped that they had prepared enough, stored enough.  By going to bed early and rising late, they were able to use less of their candles and oils and wood.  The ate food that could be stored, such as gourds and grains and meat.  Our ancestors hibernated as the animals did, telling stories around the fires and connecting to the natural cycles of the inner clock of the earth.

Welcoming the return of the sun.

The first day of Yule, celebrated on the day of the winter solstice (Monday, Dec 21, 2020 at 2:02am Pacific), is a celebration of the returning of the sun.  In a time where we were earth centric and it was thought that the sun moved around the earth, our ancestors watched the horizon line and waited for it to reach it’s southernmost journey.  At that point, the sun appeared to stand still with a shallow arc along the southern horizon.  The translation, Sol (Sun) and Sisto (to stop or stand still) speaks to what our early families saw; the sun standing still as it reached it’s solstice peak.  After solstice, the sun appeared to start his northern journey once again.

The term Winter Solstice and Midwinter mean the same thing, the astrological aspect of our earth at her furthest tilt from the sun, and thus the returning of the light.  The term Yule responds to the religious ceremonies  and spiritual practices around Winter Solstice. 

Welcoming the return of the light, children run through the light tunnel at Fresno’s Chaffee Zoo, 2012.

Yule lasts for 12 days and is often connected with the 12 days of Epiphany (which start with Christmas) or the 12 Sacred Nights.  In times past, before the Gregorian calendar used today (1582 AD) and the Julian calendar (45 BC), people used a lunar calendar.  The lunar month, or lunation, is approximately 29.5 days long creating a lunar year of approximately 354 days.  The solar calendar based on the movement of the earth around the sun is 365 days.  This created a difference each year of 11 to 12 days between the lunar and the solar calendar.  With the solstice generally falling around December 20th or 21st, there were 12 days until the New Year of the solar calendar.  (Yule traditionally ends with a large feast on the 12th day, which corresponds to New Year’s Eve parties.) These 12 days each responded to a month of the coming year and were thought to foretell the year to come, specifically through dreams. When counted from Christmas, these 12 days end at Epiphany.  

Saturn and Jupiter come together, just 2 nights from their closest conjunction in 800 years. The sun has set far to the south, with only 30 hours until Solstice.

Why are the Pagan traditions and Christian traditions so closely linked?  We understand that the old traditions were deeply ingrained in the people who’s lives revolved around the wheel of the year.  When Christianity took root, it was difficult to pull our ancestors out of their traditions and so religious leaders absorbed the festivals of the Pagans into the religious holy days.  A beautiful example of this is that pre-Christian Romans celebrated the birth of Mithras on the Winter Solstice.  Mithras was the sun god, and his birth on the solstice meant the return of his light to the people of Earth.  In the 4th Century, the Church of Rome changed the birth of the SUN to the birth of the SON, the Christian Jesus who would bring light to the world.  It is believed that the historical Jesus was born in the spring, but as the pagans already celebrated at solstice, the birth of Jesus as the return of the light symbolically celebrated our lives being reborn with the sun/son.

Gifts were traditionally given to the Gods and Goddesses at midwinter to curry favor, stop famine, and improve the weather.  Rewards and incentives were given to children on St. Nicholas day (December 6th in Europe).  Good little children were given candy and small gifts in their shoes and socks, when bad children were given sticks and stones and coal.  Gifts were also given as charms and talisman to travelers in hopes that their journeys were safe. 

For a beautiful article on the Nordic celebrations for each of the 12 days of Yule, check out this article by Sam Silver.  

A visit to Disney, December 2013, the lights honor the storms and Goddesses of Winter.

The Tradition of the Yule Log

The Yule log was generally a piece of Oak, however Ash was thought to bring insight and luck.  The home was cleaned and the the largest log that could fit in the hearth was drug home.  It was carved and shaped until it could be placed in the fireplace.  The family then decorated the log with carvings, often in the shape of the Celtic mother crone, known as Cailleach.  She was the embodiment of cold, death, and the coming of the end of the year.  Other carvings included runic symbols, writing, and important sigils.  The log was covered in greenery, ale, mead and whisky and then lit on solstice eve.  It was good luck to light it on the first attempt using a piece of last years log as kindling. Once lit, it was watched through the night, with stories told, wishes made, and toasts and celebration.  It was considered a good omen if it burned until morning.  By burning the log, winter was replaced by heat and light and celebrated the rebirth of the sun. 

You can follow this tradition by anointing your own Yule log with oils, specifically the oils of evergreen trees.  Concentrate on giving thanks for protection from the cold and for a good Yule or upcoming year.  Carve your own sacred symbols, use a wood burner, or simply write on the surface of your log.  Prayers and wishes can be tied to your Yule log with colored ribbons or cotton string, preferably in the colors of Yule. (Red, prosperity and passion.  Evergreen, magic and the return of life.  White, purity and light.  Gold, the return of the sun, the gifts of the Magi.). Light your log with ceremony, whether that be within your own hearth or a fire pit in your yard.  Imagine your prayers going up with the smoke to your guardians, angels, and ancestors.  If you have a live Christmas/Yule tree in your home, save a portion of the trunk for next year’s yule log.  

Choosing a Yule tree with my daughter, 2006.

An alternate tradition to the Yule log is the Yule candle.  Light a gold or yellow pillar candle in the center of the table to welcome the return of the sun. Give each individual a white pillar candle to carve into and have them carve their prayers and symbols and wishes directly into the wax.  Place the white Yule candles around the sun candle and allow them to burn down or light daily through the 12 days of Yule, burning down to the base on the final day of Yule.  

Do you have any Yule, Solstice, Christmas, or holiday traditions that are particularly important to you?

Solstice Blessings and a Happy Yule.

Wandering the evergreens, looking for a tree, 2007.


The Christmas Star: Who’s Ready for the Great Saturn and Jupiter Conjunction of 2020 – NYTimes

12 Nights of Yule by Sam Silver – Nordic Wiccan

Yule – Day of Winter Solstice – National Day Calendar

The 12 Days of Yuletide, A History – Valerie Biel

Lunar Calendar – Wiki

Earth’s Axis – NASA

Winter Solstice: The sun stands still on Saturday (2013) – Space.com

December 25th: Birthday of Mithras, the Sun God

Magical Colors of the Yule Season – Learn Religions

New here? More about me…


Yule: Rituals, Recipes & Lore for the Winter Solstice

Llewellyn’s Little Book of Yule

The Old Magic of Christmas: Yuletide Traditions for the Darkest Days of the Year

The Return of the Light: Twelve Tales from Around the World for the Winter Solstice

The Legend of the Icelandic Yule Lads

Gifts under the Yule tree, 2020.

What is Samhain?

Two shapes move through the dark, silhouetted by a light in the distance. They carry a lantern. Photo by Anna Loscotoff.

Samhain (pronounced SOW-in in Irish and SAH-win in Oxford English) is the final spoke in the Wheel of the Year, a marker of the beginning of Winter.  You may have heard it called, “The Witches’ New Year” as it is the start of a new cycle; honoring ancestors, the end of harvest, and preparing to go inward with winter to start over again. It is believed that the veil between the living world and the spirit world thins at the end of Autumn, allowing our ancestors, spirits, and faeries to cross over.  

For the ancient pagans, Samhain revolved around a fire festival in which the family fire was left to die while the grazing animals were gathered from their fields and the final bits of the harvest were collected.  The community then congregated while a Druid priest relit the central fire using friction of a wheel and spindle.  Food was left at the edges of the land for wandering spirits and the Fae.  At the end of the ceremony, families relit their home fires, bonfires, and torches with the sacred fire. Bonfires and torches were burned at the edges of the fields to celebrate the end of harvest and direct their energy to turning inward- survival through winter. It was believed that their ancestors would come and visit at this time, along with other energies beyond the veil, both bad and good. By dressing as animals or other frightening beasts, individuals were protected from faeries, and later, witches. 

A woman leads the way, carting 6 lighted torches, with the orange silhouettes of other's following her.  Photo by Anna Loscotoff, 2012.
A reenactment of the story of Harvest, Hoe’s Down at Full Belly Farms, October, 2012, Guinda, Ca.

In the middle ages, boys would light torches from the communal fire and run them to the edges of their land in an effort to protect it from supernatural harm.  Those who went out on Samhain carried carved turnips on strings with glowing pieces of coal inside.  These were called jack-o’-lanterns, named after a Christian legend of a blacksmith named Old Jack, who was so evil, neither heaven nor hell would allow him entrance. He was said to roam the road on Halloween night with nowhere to go, a turnip lamp lighting his way.  Carrying a jack-o’-lantern protected those who carried them from being kidnapped or harmed by that which came through the veil.

The torches and jack-o’-lantern were used to keep witches away,  but they were also used as guides for ancestors who had crossed the veil to commune with their families.  To let the fire burn down on Samhain night meant an ancestor may not be able to find their way home.

The lit up face of a jack-o'-lantern at night.  It has many sharp teeth and cat-like eyes.  Photo by Anna Loscotoff.
A jack-o’-lantern at night, guiding our way in the darkness and scaring away evil.

In the 5th century, as Christianity moved through Europe, Pope Boniface attempted to change the pagan tradition of honoring the dead to honoring saints and martyrs.  The celebration date was moved to May 13th, hoping the non-Christians would forget their pagan holiday.  The fire festival continued.  In the 9th century, Pope Gregory moved the holiday back, hoping to again pull the pagans from their festivals.  Instead of overlapping with Samhain, the church chose November 1st as All Saints’ Day, and later, Nov 2nd as All Souls’ Day. In time, Samhain began to be called All Hallows’ Eve, or the evening before Hallows’ Day (Saints’ Day).

When the Irish settled in America, they brought their traditions around Samhain and Halloween with them.  Turnips were not yet common in the new world and so pumpkins, being available, replaced turnip lanterns. All Hallows’ Eve during early America revolved around parties and games for children with an opportunity at courtship for those unmarried.  Non-Irish neighbors joined in the celebrations and took the traditions on as their own. By the 1920’s, pranking, mischief and violence took over Halloween.  The tradition of giving candy eventually took over (into the 1950’s)  as a successful alternative to reducing damage and easing the fear that had settled around the date.  

A skeleton ornament rides a bike with many textures in the background. In honor of the Day of the Dead. Photo by Anna Loscotoff.
On an October trip to San Antonio, TX, the city celebrated Dia De Las Muertos, the Day of the Dead. Photo by Anna Loscotoff.

Rituals for Samhain

Prepare A Path for you Ancestors

Many cultures today believe that their ancestors will visit on All Hallows’ Eve.  They clean their homes, prepare family meals, and line their walkway with lights; guiding their ancestors to the door.  You can follow in this tradition through the lighting of jack-o’-lanterns and lining you walkway with decorated paper bags lit from inside with LED tea lights.

Create an Altar for your Ancestor

Create a space to make your ancestors feel welcome.  Put out pictures of them or trinkets from their lives.  Write them letters or write down your memories of them.  This can be as simple as a mason jar with a few memories inside, to something much more complex.  You can also honor a group of ancestors, using family crests, slips of paper with family names, tartan patterns, anything that symbolizes the family line.

Create a “Dumb” Supper Setting

A dumb supper leaves space to feed your ancestors, the word dumb meaning silence.  This can be as simple as leaving a bit of food out on a plate over night for your ancestors, to a full dinner in which the living family members toast to the departed.  Traditionally, a white tablecloth was used and a bit of wine was spilled with each toast onto the cloth as an offering.  At least one seat should remain empty, more if possible.  The family eats in silence and observes what happens around them, watching for slight changes; a breeze, a moth, a noise, to signify a family member’s presence. 

Our Own Tradition – The Lighting of the Candles 

Every year since my daughter was little, after trick-or-treating, we light white candles.  We set them up in a base of rice or grain or sand. We each take turns lighting a candle and saying the name of a loved one that has passed. This is not limited to humans, we also light candles for our pets.  We allow the candles to burn down naturally through the evening.

A girl stands, her face lit by many white candles honoring her ancestors. Photo by Anna Loscotoff.
On Samhain, we light white candles in honor of our ancestors. We say their name as we light the candle and think of them. We allow the candles to burn down on their own.


My favorite book about Samhain; Samhain: Rituals, Recipes & Lore for Halloween (Llewellyn’s Sabbat Essentials)

Llewellyn’s 2021 Sabbats Almanac: Samhain 2020 to Mabon 


My favorite white candles for burning on Samhain

A Sinister History of Halloween Pranks

A Feast with the Dead: How to Hold a Pagan Dumb Supper for Samhain

The Pagan Dumb Supper: What It is and How to Host One

The Origins of the Word Halloween

Hoe’s Down at Fully Belly Farm (where many of these photos were taken)

My Most Important Blog and a Bit About Me

Candles burn down, almost burning out. Photo by Anna Loscotoff.
After lighting candles for our ancestors, we let them burn down on their own, until they extinguish themselves.